Diabetes: Type 1.5, Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Hemochromatosis
Diabetes – Type 1.5
About 51-20% of all the people suffering from type 2 diabetes in the US are not overweight, nor do they show any resistance to insulin. GAD65 antibody and the like has been found to affect and selectively attack the beta cells and destroy a part of them. This reduces the capacity of the pancreas to produce sufficient amount of insulin required for proper breakdown of glucose in the blood.
Management of this kind of diabetes usually starts with standard type 2 regime, however insulin resistance inhibitors like Avandia and Actos show no response because insulin resistance was not there in the first place. Medication for stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin, reducing production of glucose by liver and slow breakdown of carbohydrates show good results initially.
Correct management may start with knowing the correct type of diabetes planning the medication in the process of growing diabetes. If after having insulin resistant diabetes for several years the patient finds the control low by using sulfonylurea while having low C-peptide levels, insulin administration is indicated. But with normal C-peptide levels, some oral medication along with dietary control and exercise may be the only required diabetes management regime.
Insulin Resistance Syndrome and Diabetes
Abdominal obesity, elevated levels of triglyceride, low levels of HDL, high blood pressure, and high blood sugar levels characterize insulin resistance syndrome, which may become a cause for diabetes. It is also called metabolic syndrome. Mexican Americans have been found to be more susceptible to this kind of diabetic condition. Again, women are more prone to this kind of condition. Older people show greater inclination towards this type of condition as well.
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Diabetes
There is a possibility of diabetes in women suffering from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. In this syndrome women suffer from hormonal imbalance. They get symptoms of irregular menstruation, acne, hair growth on the chest and back, obesity, infertility and numerous cysts in the ovarian follicles. Their glands generally produce more of testosterone than estrogen and progesterone. Such women show resistance to insulin and typical type 2 diabetic symptoms.
Obesity associated with the syndrome is responsible for the type 2 symptoms. The cysts in the follicular region of the ovaries damage the production of eggs and leads to infertility. The high level of insulin in the blood promotes production of androgynous hormones and causes obesity.
Sometimes low calorie diet and exercise for weight control reduces the diabetic effects. Administration of hormones with insulin sensitizing medicines as Metformin, Avandia and Actos, and androgen-blocking drugs can give good results. However the use of insulin sensitizing drugs may interfere with progress of pregnancy.
Hemochromatosis and Diabetes
Hemochromatosis is the condition of iron overload in the blood possibly leading to diabetes. This condition is genetic. This can cause damage to various organs due to the oxidizing properties of iron. The damage to the pancreas causes the condition of diabetes. This type of diabetic condition is also called bronze diabetes because of the bronze coloration of the skin. Diabetes associated with liver damage often indicates hemochromatosis.
The excess of iron in the blood is deposited in various organs and slowly the organs are damaged. Heart, lungs, kidneys, liver pancreas and brain are generally affected by this disorder. Patients also have a great tendency to have heart attack.